Specifying the content and application area for preventive methods and technologies requires their differentiation from those of psychotherapy, which boundaries are not clearly defined. Unlike preventive measures, which mean that both psychological and social situations are being worked out including the immediate environment of an individual, psychotherapy is primarily aimed at an uncomfortable mental state, which can be expressed in fear, anxiety, panic, despair, depression, psychosomatic problems. In contrast to a psychosocial worker, a psychotherapist is more focused not on the social psychological environment, but on the deep layers of the psyche together with the subconscious and its formation in early childhood.Psychosocial prevention of suicide is carried out by means of the following methods and techniques.
Listening is the first and most important method. Being asked to explain the reason for committing suicide, the person tries to splash out all negative emotions (for example, problems in private life, business failures, conflicts at work, or even poor health). While speaking out, the person becomes less aggressive, and the thought of suicide recedes into the background. The next means is the method of banalisation. People tend to think that their problems are something quite exceptional. That is why it is extremely useful to point out that a number of people suffer from the same challenges and have the same thoughts, but they try to solve them in some other ways. Another technique is the aesthetic method, which is very effective, albeit rather primitive. It will work for those who cares about appearance and includes telling them what they will look like in case of committing a particular variant of suicide. To remind of children and parents is another effective alternative to prevent suicide.
Preventive activities can be represented at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Primary prevention is aimed at the formation of an adequate style of behavior in difficult situations. A significant role in achieving the goals at this stage can be played by a modern school. Secondary prevention is oriented on those who are already in a state of suicidal behavior. The purpose of such prevention is to minimize influence of the stress situation on a person, as well as to limit the degree of harm caused to both suiciders and their surrounding micro-society including friends, classmates, family members. The effectiveness of this stage can be determined by the restoration of personal and social status of a suicider. The most important components of secondary prevention are creating an early detection system of suicidal behavior, ensuring the availability of comprehensive examination and providing qualified psychological, medical, pedagogical and social assistance. Tertiary prevention deals with preventing relapses and recidivism in committing suicide. In fact, this is rehabilitation, which, according to WHO experts, is a comprehensive targeted use of medical, psychological, social, educational and labour measures to adapt a person who has committed suicide to work at the highest possible level. The problems of secondary and tertiary prevention can be solved in specialized public rehabilitation centers.
The mystery of death will always excite humankind. Probably, certain circumstances will lead people to a dangerous line even in the most humane society. However, based on the unique value of each human life, society can help anyone to develop a life-affirming worldview, to feel the faith in the great destiny of man. One death is a tragedy, but thousand deaths are statistics. Unfortunately, if a person decided to take his or her own life, it is not possible to prevent it (unless it is a question of a kind of showing off). The person, who decided to commit suicide, ends the plan. Recently, there has been a steady trend towards an increase in the number of suiciders, and, according to statistics, they are getting younger. Unfortunately, we are fighting not with the cause, but with its consequences. The reason is of social nature. When a person cannot find his place in this world, it is impossible for him to realize himself. Humanity has become a victim of urbanization, and those who cannot adapt to current conditions are simply disappearing into this world. Over the past few decades, society has been much degraded and it is not surprising that not all of its members are able to adapt to the prevailing living conditions. Nevertheless, there is still a hope for a bright future. I want to believe that we can still overcome this barrier between life and death in order to choose the former.