Researchers of field of psychological well being assume that an important feature of a good life is that the person himself likes his life. Early studies of well-being were focused on the absence of psychopathology. But the recent studies emphasize on optimal PWB (Bar-On, 2005; Huppert, Baylis, & Keverne, 2004). Huppert et al. describe subjective well-being as living life well. Some other researchers consider psychological well being in terms of happiness (eudaimonia) (Aristotle, 1947; and Deci and Ryan, 2008).It is concerned with an individual’s judgement regarding enduring mood (happiness). Some consider it as evaluation of self, i.e. satisfaction with one’s physical and mental health and functioning; and its relation to material and psycho-social environment (life and work satisfaction). According to Ryff (1989), psychological well being indicates “whether and to what extent an individual is dealing with the existential challenges of life, focusing on self realization, and whether the person is fully functioning, leading to satisfaction in all aspects of life.
In the context of faculty members, psychological well-being is an important factor. It is so because PWB affect attitude and performance of a teacher which in turn has great role in building the future of students. Related literature motivated me to conduct a study on psychological well being of faculty members. Another important parameter which has a great impact on performance of teachers is: Personal Effectiveness.
Personal effectiveness include openness with others, sharing and taking feedback from others and ability to understand verbal and non verbal cues from others. Very few researches have been made to study the relationship between personal effectiveness and psychological well being. So, the current research is aimed at studying relationship between Personal Effectiveness and Psychological Well Being of teachers in higher education.
Psychological Well Being
As per Ryff model of PWB, the six psychological dimensions identified are:
Self Acceptance: Having a positive attitude towards the self, acknowledgement and acceptance of multiple aspects of self and feeling positive about past life.
Environmental mastery: Having a sense of mastery and competence in managing the environment and an ability to choose or create contexts suitable to personal needs and values.
Positive relations with others: Maintaining warm, satisfying, trusting relationships with others, showing concern about the welfare of others, having a capability of strong empathy, and understanding the importance of give and take attitude in human relationships.
Purpose in life: Having goals and a sense of direction in life, feeling that there is a meaning to present and past life and maintaining beliefs that give purpose to one’s life.
Personal growth: Having feelings towards continuous development, seeing self as growing and expanding, openness to new experiences, realizing one’s potential, seeing improvement in self and behaviour over time, and changing in ways that reflect more self knowledge and effectiveness.
Autonomy: Having autonomy means possessing self determination, independence, and ability to resist the social pressures to think and act in certain ways, regulation of behaviour from within, and self evaluation by personal standards.
Openness: It is the second critical factor for personal effectiveness. Openness means sharing with others, so that they come to know about one’s self. But openness is not always effective. It is effective:
When a person sees that sharing what he/she wants to share is appropriate in a given situation.
When person is aware of what his/her openness is likely to do to others.
Feedback: It may be positive or negative. There is no problem in positive feedback. But negative feedback creates dissonance with self image and it may be threatening to ego. There are two ways of dealing with negative feedback:
Defensive: It does not serve the purpose. In some situations it may be functional.
Confronting: Conflict is reduced. Continued use of such behaviour will result in an integrated self.
Self Awareness: Most widely used model for self awareness is Johari’s Window, developed by Luft and Ingham (Luft, 1973). According to this, there are two dimensions for understanding the self:
Those aspects of one’s behaviour and style that are known to self
Those aspects of one’s behaviour and style that are known to others (with whom to interact)
There are four areas of knowledge about self on the basis of combination of these two dimensions, as shown in figure 1.2:The size of Arena or open space is critical for personal effectiveness.
Perceptiveness: Ability to pick up verbal and non verbal cues from others. Perceptiveness and openness reinforce each other and if used effectively, are likely to increase personal effectiveness. Perceptiveness should be used appropriately. If a person is too much conscious about other’s feelings, he may restrict his interactions. Or, if a person is too much conscious about own limitations, again he may restrict his interactions. To increase effective perceptiveness one should check other’s reactions to what he/she has said.
Rationale of Study
Psychological health of teachers is a prerequisite for the “success” of students, the education system, and the society at large. A study conducted by Mabekoje (2003) highlighted the importance of psychological well being of teachers. Well being of today’s teacher affect the well being of tomorrow’s society because it affects the standards of education and educational experience of youth. Also it has been established by various researches that happy people are much more productive in several ways. Another important concept – personal effectiveness is also responsible for high performance of teachers. So, in the present study the relation between these two important factors has been studied. The findings could be used for developing strategies to enhance PWB of teachers. It would also help the researchers of future, students and faculty, who have interest in this area.
H0 (Null Hypothesis): There is no significant relationship between personal effectiveness and psychological well being
The study was conducted on a sample of teachers taken from management institutes of Faridabad. Convenience sampling technique was used because the data was related to the behavioral aspect of individuals, so the link with the faculty members was very much required. A sample of 54 faculty members was taken from the survey population.
Primary data on personal effectivenss and psychological well being was collected and administered from well-structured questionnaire. Ryff’s scale of Psychological Well being (Ryff, 1995) was used to measure psychological well being. It measures six constructs of psychological wellbeing. These are:
Autonomy – independence and self-determination
Environmental mastery – the ability to manage one’s life
Personal growth – being open to new experiences
Positive relations with others – having satisfying, high quality relationships
Purpose in life – believing that one’s life is meaningful
Self-acceptance – a positive attitude towards oneself and one’s past life
The questionnaire consisted of 42 items. Out of these 42 items, 20 were negative and 22 were positive. The responses were taken on a 6 point scale ranging from ‘Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree’.
Reliability and Validity of Instrument: The internal consistency coefficients of the instrument were found to be quite high (between 0.86 and 0.93). The test-retest reliability coefficients for a sub-sample of the participants over a 6 week period were also found to be high (0.81-0.88). Construct validity of the instrument has been checked.
Personal effectiveness scale (Pareek, 1981) for teachers was used to measure personal effectiveness of faculty members. It measures three constructs of effectiveness. These are:
Self Disclosure: Sharing with others what they do not seem to know about one’s self
Openness to feedback: Being open to what others say on certain aspects of which one may not be aware.
Perceptiveness: Sensitivity to other’s feelings and non verbal cues.
The questionnaire consisted of 15 items. Out of these 15 items, 9 were negative and 6 were positive. The responses were taken on a 5 point scale ranging from ‘Mostly to Seldom’.
Reliability: The Chronbach alpha of the instrument was found to be 0.68, which is greater than the minimum threshold of .60 (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994).
Total 70 questionnaires were distributed out of which 54 complete questionnaires were obtained. The response rate was 85 percent. Response rate of 60 percent and over is necessary to ensure that the replies of those responding will give an accurate picture of the population from which they are drawn (Moser & Kalton, 1971).
Secondary Data: The secondary information was collected from available literature on the topic from Journals, Books, Newspaper and Magazines; and Internet.
From the table it is clear that the mean PWB score (188.48) lie in the medium range, whereas self disclosure is low (10.41), perceptiveness is also on lower side (12.30) and openness to feedback is above average (15.26). Out of 6 factors of PWB, the minimum mean score is of ‘Environmental Mastery’ (28.48) and highest is of ‘Positive Relations with others’ (34.59). In remaining factors scores are average.
Relation Between Personal Effectiveness
To study the relation of personal effectiveness and psychological well being of faculty members, correlation has been applied. Correlation describes the strength of association between two variables. So, first of all, to check strength of association between PE (total PE and 3 factors of personal effectiveness) and psychological well being (total PWB and 6 psychological well being factors), bivariate correlation has been used. The results are shown below in the table: From the above table it is very much clear that the personal effectiveness is not significantly associated with the psychological well being of an individual. No correlation coefficient is significant. Neither the personal effectiveness factors nor total PE are significantly related to psychological well being of faculty members. So the null hypothesis is accepted.
The mean Psychological Well Being score was 188.48. This signifies that on an average the PWB of teachers was in medium range. Out of 6 factors of PWB, the minimum mean score is of ‘Environmental Mastery’ (28.48) and highest is of ‘Positive Relations with others’ (34.59). This represent that the respondents have high score in ‘Positive relations with others’. In remaining five factors scores are average. If we see factors of personal effectiveness, the minimum mean score is of ‘Self disclosure’ (10.41) and highest mean score is of ‘Openness to Feedback’ (15.26). In case of personal effectiveness, ‘Openness to feedback’ is high in respondents but ‘Self disclosure’ and ‘Perceptiveness’ are low.
The results of bivariate correlation to study the impact of personal effectiveness (total PE and 3 factors of personal effectiveness) on psychological well being of faculty members depict that no correlation coefficient is significant. Neither the personal effectiveness factors nor total PE are significantly related to psychological well being of faculty members. So the null hypothesis is accepted. This means personal effectiveness is not associated with the psychological well being of an individual. The results are in contradiction to the study of Sharma (2011). According to the study conducted by her the predictive ability of emotional intelligence for psychological well being increased by introducing personal effectiveness in the independent variables. Much literature was not available in this area.
Personal effectiveness of a teacher in higher education is an important factor in determining their success as a trainer or facilitator. Perceptiveness or sensitivity to other’s feelings and non-verbal cues from students and colleagues are very important for a teacher. In the current research the score of two areas of personal effectiveness, self awareness and perceptiveness are low. This means various training program are required to develop teachers in these areas. Similarly, the PWB score also lies in medium range. PWB is also related with performance of an individual. So, training programs to enhance PWB of teachers should be organized by the institutions. There is no significant relation between these two factors but individually both factors influence performance of a teacher.