In the dawn of November 29th, John Chivington rounded the nearly 700 troops to surround the nearby village of Sand Creek. The group of men had been given orders to “Kill and scalp all, big and little.” The violence that followed has gone down in infamy. The Cheyenne heard their attackers coming way before they saw the 700 armed men. Black Kettle was known as a peacemaker, and in a final hope he raised a U.S. flag. Many of the residents were waving white flags of surrender, but John Chivington ignored the gestures of peace. Later Chivington wrote they ended up murdering many Native Americans, an “almost an annihilation of the entire tribe.” The Colorado men dismembered many Cheyenne horrifically scalping and disemboweling the Native Americans en masse. Ruthlessly, the recruits shot people as some pleaded for mercy and others attempted escape. It was even rumored they used infants for target practice, unloading their guns upon them from far away. Chivington kept many scalps as souvenirs. By the end 200 Native Americans lay dead, most of them women and children. But to put salt in the wound, Chivington and his troops were hailed as heroes. The scalps were used as props in local plays. Outraged by what they had done, tribes gathered for retaliation. Red Cloud, a Sioux chief, led an army of men. They attacked the troops under command of William Fetterman. Of the soldiers working that day not one survived. Both sides were at a loss. The Massacre at Sand Creek has earned the nickname ‘Gettysburg of the West’. With mass casualties, Sand Creek abolished any hope of peaceful settlement in the West. It was a landmark in the American Indian wars, and a bookend of the Civil War. Because of Sand Creek, another treaty was formed and signed. The Second Treaty of Fort Laramie was put into action in 1868. But the treaty was considered unfair by many, and the momentary truce was short lived.