Analysis of the Approaches of Tourism Planning

Published: 2021-06-17 09:37:26
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Tourism is a multidimensional phenomenon which has a long history of development. Because of its importance, geographers and scholars have explored tourism as a field of research. Political, economic and natural changes affect tourism and lead to its change. The history of tourism planning and policy cannot exist outside society, politics, culture and economic systems. Getz (1986) identifies four approaches to tourism planning according to the values that underpin the planning or policy activity: boosterism; economic; physical/spatial and community. In 1998 Hall added an additional approach, sustainable planning, which includes positive tendencies of all approaches, based on previous experiences.
The development of boosterism began in the 1950s and 1960s. The purpose was to involve tourists for profit, governments and politicians were interested in the economic benefits. However, boosterism does not consider local resident interests in planning process and the carrying capacity of the region is not given adequate consideration. This approach does not provide sustainable development, and also it exhausts the potential of the region.According to Mill and Morrison (1985), economic tourism approach is considered as equal as other industries. Tourism has become a tool for employment creation, to earn foreign income and to improve conditions trade and encouragement of regional growth.
Spatial/physical approach has an ecological base. This approach to tourism planning is a form of land use. According to Murphy (1985), tourism attractions can be divided into two categories, natural or man-made.
Community based approach, as opposed to boosterism, involves local residents in decision-making. This approach searches for alternatives to “mass” tourism development.
Spatial planning is the important instrument of economic and social policy of the country as it provides the balanced and sustained occupancy of the territory. In this approach, tourism was broken into spatial units, such as land uses, or spatial elements, including nodes, precincts, gateways and transport corridors. According to Gunn (1994), well-planned physical destination would attract tourists. Physical planning requires some understanding of the relationships between development and certain location factors and other land assets. If planners and developers are interested in new tourism, an assessment of these assets becomes important. Past experiences show that attractions vary regarding their dependency upon certain land assets.
Spatial planning involves resource foundation and categories of attraction. Attractions are dependent upon large quantity and high quality land and location assets and they are divided into three groups: natural resource assets; cultural resource assets; noncultural and nonnatural resource assets. Natural resource assets include all natural resources as water, forests, wildlife and climate. Cultural resources include historic buildings, historic sites and ethnic areas. Noncultural and nonnatural assets include business development and markets. The extent to which government has adopted spatial tourism planning largely depended on the roles and responsibilities of government. In market economy counties, public and private roles are well defined. Federal government provides the bulk of nationwide promotion and information services. Development of infrastructure and physical planning policies and regulations are often delegated to regional and community governments. The private sector is most frequently involved in hotels, food services, entertainment, tours and transportation.

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